The Sumatran rhinocerosalso known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensisis a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the only extant Hot hairy asian of the genus Dicerorhinus. A coat of reddish-brown hair covers most of the Sumatran rhino's body. In historical times, they lived in southwest China, particularly in Sichuan.
Their numbers are difficult to determine because they are solitary animals that are widely scattered across their range, but they are estimated to number fewer than Inresearchers announced that the Bornean rhinoceros had become extinct from the northern part of Borneo SabahMalaysia ;  however, a tiny population was discovered in East Kalimantan in early The Sumatran rhino is a mostly solitary animal except for courtship and offspring-rearing.
It is the most vocal rhino species and also communicates through marking soil with its Hot hairy asian, twisting saplings into patterns, and leaving excrement. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Javan rhinocerosin part because of a program that Hot hairy asian 40 Sumatran rhinos into captivity with the goal of preserving the species.
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There was little or no information about procedures Hot hairy asian would assist in ex situ breeding. Though a number of rhinos died once at the various destinations and no offspring were produced for nearly 20 years, the rhinos were all doomed in their soon to be logged forest.
Drawings of the animal, and a written description, were sent to the naturalist Joseph Banksthen president of the Royal Society of Londonwho published a paper on the specimen that year.
Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger proposed the name Dicerorhinus in InJohn Edward Gray proposed the name Ceratorhinus. Normally, the oldest name would be used, but a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature established the proper genus name as Dicerorhinus.
A slight genetic Hot hairy asian is noted between the Western Sumatran and Bornean rhinos. Unconfirmed reports suggest a small population may still survive in Myanmar, but the political situation in that country has prevented verification. Later studies showed that their ear-hair was not longer than other Sumatran rhinos, but D.
Ancestral rhinoceroses first diverged from other perissodactyls in the Early Eocene. Mitochondrial DNA Hot hairy asian suggests the ancestors of modern rhinos split from Hot hairy asian ancestors of Equidae around 50 million years ago.
The Sumatran rhinoceros is considered the least derived of the extant species, as it shares more traits with its Miocene ancestors. Many fossils have been classified as members of Dicerorhinusbut no other recent species are in the genus. Three hypotheses have been proposed for the relationship between the Sumatran rhinoceros and the other living species. One hypothesis suggests the Sumatran rhinoceros is closely related to the black and white rhinos in Africa, evidenced by the species having two horns, instead of one.
Because of morphological similarities, the Sumatran rhinoceros is believed to be closely related to the extinct woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis. The woolly rhinoceros, so named for the coat of hair it shares with the Sumatran rhinoceros, first appeared in China; by the Upper Pleistoceneit ranged across the Eurasian continent from Korea to Spain.
The woolly rhinoceros survived the last Ice Agebut, like the woolly mammothmost or all became extinct around 10, years ago. Although some morphological studies questioned the relationship,  recent molecular analysis has supported the Hot hairy asian species as sister taxa.
The larger nasal horn is also known as the anterior horn; the smaller posterior horn is known as the frontal horn.
The males have larger horns Hot hairy asian the females, though the species is not otherwise sexually dimorphic. The Sumatran rhino lives an estimated 30—45 years in the wild, while the record time in captivity is a female D. Two thick folds of skin encircle the body behind the front legs and before the hind legs. The rhino has a smaller fold of skin around its neck.
Hair can range from dense the most dense hair in young calves to scarce, and is usually a reddish brown. In the wild, this hair is hard to observe because the rhinos are often covered in mud. In captivity, however, the hair grows out and becomes much shaggier, likely because of less abrasion from walking through Hot hairy asian.
The rhino has a patch of long hair around its ears and a thick clump of hair at the end of its tail. Like all rhinos, they have very poor vision. The Sumatran rhinoceros is fast and agile; it climbs mountains easily and comfortably traverses steep slopes and riverbanks. The Sumatran rhinoceros lives in both lowland and highland secondary rainforestswamps, and cloud forests.
It inhabits hilly areas close to water, particularly steep upper valleys with copious undergrowth.
The Sumatran rhinoceros once inhabited a continuous range as far north as Burmaeastern Indiaand Bangladesh. Unconfirmed reports also placed it in CambodiaLaosand Vietnam. Some conservationists hope Sumatran rhinos may still survive in Burma, though it is considered unlikely.
Political turmoil in Burma has prevented any assessment or study of possible survivors. The Sumatran rhino is widely scattered across its range, much more so than the other Asian rhinos, which has made it difficult for conservationists to protect members of the species effectively.
The Kerinci Seblat National ParkSumatra's largest, was estimated to contain a population of around rhinos in the s,  but due to poaching, this population is now considered extinct. The survival of any animals in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely unlikely. Genetic analysis of Sumatran rhino populations has identified three distinct genetic lineages.
In fact, Hot hairy asian eastern Sumatra and Malaysia rhinos show so little genetic variance, the populations were likely not separate during the Pleistocenewhen sea levels were much lower and Hot hairy asian formed part of the mainland.
Both populations of Sumatra and Malaysia, however, are close enough genetically that interbreeding would not be problematic. The rhinos of Borneo are sufficiently distinct that conservation geneticists have advised against crossing their lineages with the other populations. The results of initial testing found levels of variability within Sumatran rhino populations comparable to those in the population of the less endangered African rhinos, but the genetic diversity of Sumatran rhinos is an area of continuing study.
Although the rhino had been thought to be extinct in Kalimantan Hot hairy asian the s, in March World Wildlife Fund WWF announced that the team when monitoring orangutan activity found in West Kutai RegencyEast Kalimantanseveral fresh rhino foot trails, mud holes, traces of rhino-rubbed trees, traces of rhino horns on the walls of mud holes, and rhino bites on small branches.
The team also identified that Hot hairy asian ate more than 30 species of plants. Experts assume the videos show two different animals, but aren't quite certain. According to the Indonesia's Minister of Forestry, Zulkifli Hasan called the video evidence "very important" and mentioned Indonesia's "target of rhino population growth by three percent per Hot hairy asian.
The rhino, a female, is being transported to a nearby sanctuary. Sumatran rhinoceroses are solitary creatures except for pairing before Hot hairy asian and during offspring rearing. No evidence indicates Sumatran rhinos defend their territories through fighting. Marking their territories is done by scraping soil with their feet, bending saplings into distinctive patterns, and leaving excrement.
The Sumatran rhino is usually most active when eating, at dawn, and just after dusk. During the day, they wallow in mud baths to cool down and rest. In the rainy seasonthey move to higher elevations; in the cooler months, they return to lower areas in their range. The wallowing behaviour helps the rhino maintain its body temperature and protect its skin from ectoparasites Hot hairy asian other insects.
Captive specimens, deprived of adequate wallowing, have quickly developed broken and inflamed skins, suppurationseye problems, inflamed nails, and hair loss, and have eventually died. One month study of wallowing behavior found they will visit no more than three wallows at any given time. After two to 12 weeks using a particular wallow, the rhino will abandon it. Typically, the rhino will wallow around midday for two to three hours at a time before venturing out for food. Although in zoos the Sumatran rhino has been observed wallowing less than 45 minutes a day, the study of wild animals found 80— minutes an average of minutes per day spent in wallows.
There has been little opportunity to study epidemiology in the Sumatran rhinoceros. Ticks and gyrostigma were reported to cause deaths in Hot hairy asian animals in the 19th century. Tigers and wild dogs may be capable of killing a calf, but calves stay close to their mothers, and the frequency of such killings is unknown.
Although the rhino's range overlaps with elephants and tapirsthe species do not appear to compete for food or habitat. Elephants Elephas maximus and Sumatran rhinos are even known to share trails, and many smaller species such as deer, boars, and wild dogs will use the trails the rhinos and elephants create. The Sumatran rhino maintains trails across its range. These trails fall into two types.
Main trails will be used by generations of rhinos to travel between important areas in the rhino's range, such as between salt licksor in corridors through inhospitable terrain that separates ranges.
In feeding areas, the rhinos will make smaller trails, still covered Hot hairy asian vegetation, to areas containing food the rhino eats. Hot hairy asian
Sumatran rhino trails have been found that cross rivers deeper than 1. The currents of these rivers are known to be strong, but the rhino is a strong swimmer.
Most feeding occurs just before nightfall and in the morning. The Sumatran rhino is a folivore,  Hot hairy asian a diet of young saplings, leaves, twigs, and shoots. The rhinoceros typically pushes these saplings over with its Hot hairy asian, walking over the sapling without stepping on it, to eat the leaves. Many of the plant species the rhino consumes exist in only small portions, which indicates the rhino is frequently changing its diet and feeding in different locations. The most common species the rhino consumes is Eugenia.
The vegetal diet of the Sumatran rhinoceros is high in fiber and only moderate in protein. These licks can be small hot springs, seepages of salty water, or mud-volcanoes. The salt licks also serve an important social purpose for the rhinos—males visit the licks to pick up the scent of females in oestrus. Some Sumatran rhinos, however, live in areas where salt licks are not readily available, or the rhinos have not been observed using the licks. These rhinos may get their necessary mineral requirements by consuming plants rich in minerals.
The Sumatran rhinoceros is the most vocal of the rhinoceros species. The eep, a short, one-second-long yelp, is the most common sound.