A bunker buster is a type of munition that is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground, such as military bunkers.
In World War IIthe British designer Barnes Wallisalready famous for inventing the bouncing-bombdesigned two bombs that would become the conceptual predecessors of modern bunker busters: These were "Earthquake" bombs —a concept he had first proposed in The tails were designed with offset fins causing the bombs Deep penetration munitions spin as they fell. Using the same principle as a spinning topthis enabled them to resist being deflected, thereby improving accuracy.
They had casings of high grade steel, much stronger than the typical World War II bomb so that they would survive hitting a hardened surface, or penetrate deep into the ground. Though these bombs might be thought of as 'bunker busters' today, in fact the original 'earthquake' theory was more Deep penetration munitions and subtle than simply penetrating a hardened surface.
The Earthquake bombs were designed not to strike a target directly, Deep penetration munitions to impact beside it, penetrate under it, and create a ' camouflet ' or large buried cavern at the same time as delivering a shock wave through the target's foundations. The target then collapses into the hole, no matter how hardened it may be.
The bombs had strong casings because they needed to travel through rock rather than reinforced concrete, though they could perform equally well against hardened surfaces.
It was proved to be effective for the intended role.
It is stated to be able to penetrate 10—20 m of earth or 2 m of reinforced concrete. The traditional fuze is the same as a classic armor-piercing bomb: The fuze is armed when the bomb is released, and detonates when the propeller stops turning and the timer has expired. Modern bunker busters may use the traditional fuze, but some also include a microphone and microcontroller.
The microphone listens, and the micro controller counts floors until the bomb breaks through the desired numbers of floors. The extra speed provided by a rocket motor enables greater penetration of a missile-mounted bunker buster warhead.
To reach maximum penetration impact depththe warhead may consist of a high-density projectile only. Such a warhead carries more energy than a warhead with chemical explosives kinetic energy of a projectile at hypervelocity.
The nuclear bunker buster is the nuclear weapon version of the bunker buster. The non-nuclear component of the weapon is designed to greatly enhance the penetration into soil Deep penetration munitions, rockor concrete to deliver a nuclear warhead to a target. These weapons would be used to destroy hardened, underground military bunkers deeply buried.
In theory, the amount of radioactive nuclear fallout would be reduced from that of a standard, air-burst nuclear detonation because they would have relatively low explosive yield. However, because such weapons necessarily come into contact with large amounts of earth-based Deep penetration munitions, they may, under certain circumstances, still generate significant fallout. Warhead yield and weapon design have changed periodically throughout the history of the design of such weapons.
An underground explosion releases a larger fraction of Deep penetration munitions energy into the ground, compared to an explosion at or above the surface which releases most of its energy into the atmosphere. Init was revealed that members of the Illegals Programa group of Russian sleeper agents in the US were gathering online information about bunker busters and Deep penetration munitions contacts with a former intelligence official and with a scientist involved in developing the weapons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Johnsenp. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.